The profitability of cattle farming is largely determined by ensuring high-quality breeding animals for replacement and longevity in production. The provision of breeding animals requires adequate fertility of the cowherd and then intensive weight gain in the calf rearing period. For ensuring these demands, many management aspects must be considered. Continuous monitoring of the herd’s health status, including redox status, is essential. This review aims to provide a summary of relevant scientific data published in the last few decades regarding the role of oxidative stress (OS) in infertility of dairy cows and developmental diseases in calves, the major predisposing factors, and possible prevention.