The paper deals with an adaptation of the standard interior ballistics model for the case of amphibious rifle shooting ammunition under water. The adapted mathematical model was validated and experimentally verified using the 5.56 mm underwater projectile shot from the 5.56 mm amphibious rifle. The dependence of the underwater interior ballistic processes on the powder mass was investigated. The results of theoretical mathematic model solution correspond very well with experiment. The described mathematical model and the dependence of the underwater interior ballistic processes on the powder mass can be a reference for designers in the design process of the underwater ammunition or underwater rifle.