Good health affects productivity and income of the workers and this will further deepen the incidence of poverty and ill-health. This study examined the linkage between ill-health cost and multidimensional poverty of rural households in Ogun state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling was used to select 240 households for the study. Data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics, economic cost of illness, multidimensional poverty index and logistic regression model. The result revealed that majority (95%) of the households experienced malaria infestation, time cost of illness contributed most (92.6%) to the total economic cost. Result revealed that 69% of households are multidimensionally poor. Furthermore, marital status (p<0.01), off-farm income (p<0.01), financial cost (p<0.01), days forgone production (p<0.1), time cost (p<0.01) and area cultivated (p<0.1) positively, and significantly influence multidimensional poverty status while household size (p<0.01), cooperative membership (p<0.05), public health care services (p<0.1) and health extension contact (p<0.01) have negative, and significant effect. The study concluded that increase in out of pocket expenditure as a result of ill-health cost increases poverty status, availability and access to public health facilities reduces poverty status, it was therefore recommended that public health facilities should be located nearer to the people with minimum social stratification that might discourage poor masses from its usage, essential drugs should be provided at subsidized rates as this will go a long way in reducing financial cost thereby reducing poverty status.