This study was aimed to study the potentially beneficial effects of agmatine on oxidative/nitrosative stress development in the brain of Wistar rats during subacute chlorpromazine treatment. The animals were divided into control (0.9% saline), chlorpromazine (38.7 mg/kg b.w.), chlorpromazine+agmatine (agmatine 75 mg/kg b.w. immediately after chlorpromazine, 38.7 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) and agmatine (75 mg/kg b.w.) groups. All the tested substances were administered intraperitoneally for 15 consecutive days and the rats were sacrificed by decapitation on day 15. Subacute administration of chlorpromazine resulted in increased lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide concentration and superoxide anion production, while completely damaging the antioxidant defence system in the cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. However, the combined treatment with chlorpromazine and agmatine significantly attenuated the oxidative/nitrosative stress indices and restored the antioxidant capacity to the control values in all of the examined brain regions. Western blot analysis supported biochemical findings in all groups, but the most notable changes were found in the hippocampus. Our results suggest potentially beneficial effects of agmatine, which may be useful in the modified antioxidant approach in chlorpromazine-therapy.