Abdel-Aal Hassan Moubasher, Mohamed Ahmed Abdel–Sater, Zeinab Soliman
Biodiversity of filamentous and yeast fungi in citrus and grape fruits and juices in Assiut area, Egypt
Periodikum: Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences
Klíčová slova: mycobiota, juice, citrus, grape, fruits, biodiversity, rDNA sequencing
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Anotace: Mycobiota diversity associated with fruits and juices of citrus and grapevine plantations in Assuit Governorate, Egypt were evaluated during the period between April 2008 to February 2009. Identification of fungi was performed using the morphological and microscopical characteristics in addition to the biochemical in case of yeasts. In suspected isolates, molecular techniques were employed to confirm their identification. High counts of yeasts were recorded from the juice of both fruits (almost more than 95 % of total fungi), followed by citrus carposphere and carpoplane where they constituted about one-fifth to one-third of total fungi. High numbers of taxa were recorded from carposphere of both fruits than those recorded from carpoplanes or juices. The peak of total propagules of carposphere fungi was recorded in primordial fruit in citrus and in senescent fruit in grape, while the peaks of carpoplane fungi of both fruits and juices were recorded in mature fruits, while the troughs of all sources were regularly recorded in immature fruits. Aspergillus provided lower count in citrus than in grape carposhere and carpoplane while the reverse was recorded in juice. A. niger predominated in carposphere, carpoplane and juice of both plants, followed by A. aculeatus in all sources from grape and A. brasiliensis in citrus carposphere and carpoplane. Penicillium contributed small proportion of propagules in both plants. P. oxalicum was the most dominant species in all sources from grape but less common in citrus carposphere and carpoplane. P. digitatum and/or P. italicum were recorded in citrus only. Cladosporium contributed the highest counts (41.9 %-59.8 %) of all fungi in boh carpospheres, while contributing minor proportions in carpoplane and juice. It was recorded in high frequency in grape while less frequent in citrus for both carposphere and carpoplane but the reverse was recorded in juices. C. cladosporioides was the most dominant species in grape while C. sphaerospermum was the most dominant in citrus carposphere and carpoplane. The peak of yeast fungi was drawn in mature fruits of both citrus (December), grape carpospheres and carpoplanes; and juices of both fruits (Ocober). Of 22 yeast species recorded, only 2 were recovered from all sources of both plants (Hanseniaspora occidentalis and Issachenkia orientalis), 3 from carposphere, carpoplane and/or juice of citrus only (Candida catenulata, Geotrichum citri-aurantii and Kodemaea ohmeri) and 7 from grape only (Candida prunicola, Rhodosporidium paludigenum, R. diobvatum, Rhodotorula glutinus, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, S. ruinenniae and Sporobolomyces roseus). Ascomyceteous yeasts were dominant over basidiomyceteous ones in all subsrates. Since, mature fruits are succeptable to fungal attack, and almost all juice fungi, including yeasts and filamentous fungi, originated from fruit fungi, precautions during selecting fruits, transportation, handling and juice-making should be taken into accounts.