To date, there has been no paper considering the disc degeneration process in respect of the content of essential and trace elements in degenerating discs tissue, clinical status of patients, and imaging analysis. Concentration of essential and trace elements in disc tissue may be a consequence of both environmental and genetic factors. The study aims to analyse and assess the contents of essential and trace elements in intervertebral discs. Patients and methods: The material of 19 intervertebral discs was obtained from 17 patients during lumbar discectomy. Control was 9 healthy discs obtained from organ donors. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to assess levels of Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Na, Mg, K, Ca, and P in the tissue, as well as dry weight (d.w.) of the tissue. Results: All 10 essential and trace elements were detected in all samples. A significant increase of Ca, Mg, Fe, and P, and decrease of Cu and K in operated discs was found; the remaining changes between unhealthy and healthy discs were not significant. There were no age / elements, Pfirrmann grade / elements, or Modic grade changes / elements correlations. A significant positive correlation was found between Mg and Zn, K and Fe, Ca and Zn, Ca and Mg, P and Zn, P and Mg, and P and Ca. A negative correlation was only indicated between age and Na. Ca levels were higher in the degenerating disc group than in the healthy group. Conclusion: A lack of correlation between the Ca content and the stage of intervertebral disc degeneration as well as the age of patients in the degenerating disc group is an unexpected result.